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Tourism and Jobs: A better future for all

World Tourism Day

World Tourism Day celebrations led by UNWTO every year on 27 September to raise awareness among people about the importance of tourism and how it helps in the economic growth of the country or any region.

The reason for World Tour-ism Day is to cultivate and create awareness among the society globally on the significance of tourism, and it’s social, political, financial and also cultural worth and value. The occasion tries to address common difficulties stated by the United Nations of Millenni-um Development Goals. It is also to feature and recognise the commitment the tourism industry can make in achieving these objectives.

The aim of celebrating World Tourism Day is to highlight the global significance of tourism as a tool for global development and cultural enlightenment. No doubt countries all over the world whether big or small some or the other way depend upon the tour-ism for its economic survival and highlight their cultural, social and political values. It is a unique opportunity to raise awareness on tourism and potential contribution to sustainable development.

It is evident that tourism plays a key part in advancing social learning and giving the essential apparatuses and general conclusion bolster in ensuring world heritage. World Tourism Day is praised far and wide in each nation and city keen on tackling the energy of tourism for development, improvement and social personality. The capital of Cambodia Phnom Penh was assigned by the European Council on Tourism and Trade as the coordinator and official host of World Tourism Day 2018 events.
The principle this global Tourism Day is to feature the worldwide criticalness of tourism as an apparatus for worldwide advancement and social improvement. As the European Council on Tour-ism and Trade President Dr Anton Caragea says Tourism is the best teacher on the planet. It is one of the objectives of the World Tourism Day festivities that are being led all through the world.

The theme of World Tourism Day 2019 is ‘Tourism and Jobs: a better future for all’. This year’s theme focuses on generating more and better jobs, especially for youth and women. To generated opportunity for work is also mentioned in the Sustainable Development Goal 8. New policies should be generated to reflect and incorporate ongoing advances in technology. The program will be held in the India’s capital city Delhi to draw attention towards the challenges outlined in the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations and how tourism industry can help meet these challenges.

According to the World Tour-ism Organisation (UNWTO), digital advances and innovation are a part of the solution to the challenge of fulfilling the continued growth with more sustainable and responsible tourism sector. The theme of World Tour-ism Day 2018 is “Tourism and Cultural Protection” and for 2017 was “Sustainable Tour-ism – a tool for development”. Tourism has an instrumental role in promoting cultural knowledge and awareness, offering the necessary tools and public opinion support in protecting world heritage. The main role of World Tourism Day is to highlight the global significance of tourism as a tool for global development and cultural enlightenment. According to the European Council on Tourism and Trade, Tourism is the greatest educator in the world.

Celebrations of World Tourism Day 2019 is in Delhi, India. India is hosting World Tourism Day for the first time because of its geographical features. India is famous for its diversity. So, it can offer tourists various cuisines, adventurous plac-es, history, music forms, languages etc. UNWTO stressed the importance of tourism and technology providing opportunities for innovation and creating the jobs of the future. Our Heritage and Culture can be protected by ensuring that during exhibitions, people should be taught about the importance of our Heritage for current and for the future generations. It is important to protect flora and fauna.

World Tourism Day is celebrated in a number of different ways. On this day amusement parks, museums and other cultural venues give free entry or reduce the charges of entry tickets to attract tourist and foster tourism.

At the end, we can’t ignore the fact that tourism has become the continuously growing and developing economic sectors worldwide because of the occurrence of various attractive and new destinations for the tourists. So, now it has become the main source of income for the developing countries.

Tourism and Jobs: a better future for all

• Tourism’s role in job creation is often undervalued. This is despite the fact that tourism generates 10% of world jobs and is included in Sustainable Development Goal 8 for its potential to create decent work.
• New policies are needed to maximize tourism’s potential to create more and better jobs, especially for women and youth. New policies are also needed to reflect and incorporate ongoing advances in technology.
• Policies and actions should be geared towards addressing the current mismatch between tour-ism skills that are taught and those that tourism employers need.
• This requires a holistic approach to the future of work in tourism, with heightened cooperation between all actors, including the public and private sectors.

The future of work

Creating and ensuring equitable employment is essential to increasing social inclusion, peace and security. The potential of every economic sector to provide decent jobs should be utilized to its fullest. The emergence of new technologies has led to the development of new forms of work that are rapidly changing production processes worldwide. This both provides opportunities for, and puts pressure, on existing employment, welfare and education agendas. All sectors and countries, therefore, need to create the conditions for more and better jobs. Embracing new technology can play a key role in achieving this goal. Making the new wave of technological breakthroughs as inclusive as possible will require considerable investment in training and skills for life and work. Everyone should have a chance to develop their full potential so as to benefit from the new technological era. By placing people and the work they do at the centre of economic and social policy and business practice, the path towards growth, equity and sustainability consists of three pillars of action:

•Increase investment in people’s capabilities
•Increase investment in the institutions of work
•Increase investment in decent and sustainable work Tourism is a leading people-to-people sector, with growth rates outpacing world economic growth and international trade. It is one of the main global export categories and with such a high impact on human workforce, it serves as a natural ally of ILO’s human-centered agenda for the future of work.

Tourism and Jobs

Tourism is a major source of employment because of its labour-intensive nature and the significant multiplier effect on employment in related sectors. It is estimated that one job in the core tourism sector creates about one-and-a-half additional or indirect jobs in the tourism-related econo-my. Overall tourism accounts for one in ten jobs worldwide. The ILO estimates that ‘accommodation and restaurants’, together with ‘private sector ser-vices’, will create jobs at the fastest rate among all sectors in the economy over the next five years. Tourism has proven to be a resil-ient economic activity. In each of the seven years following the global economic crisis of 2010, the number of worldwide international tourist arrivals grew at 4% or above. Tourism is a contributor to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a target in Goals 8, 12 and 14. The sector’s contribution to job creation is specifically recognized in Goal 8, target 8.9. This states: “By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products”. However, despite representing 10% of the world’s jobs, tourism’s role in employment generation and entrepreneurship is often underestimated and undervalued in policy formulation and implementation.

Tourism jobs and the digital revolution – the main challenges

Globalization, technological prog-ress and demographic change are trends that, together, have redefined the tourism sector and how it functions. At the heart of our now hyper-connected, hyper-informed world is a digital-led revolution in markets, as well as in the demand for skills and the characteristics of tourism jobs. Recent years have seen the emergence of digital breakthroughs, including new platform tourism services (the so-called sharing or collaborative economy), big data and geo-localization. Some of the main issues the tourism sector faces in adapting its workforce to the technological revolution are:

• The need to review and update outdated legislation and regulation that supports employment, innovation, entrepreneur-
ship and new business models
• The low level of awareness and expertise of new technologies and technological trends
• A lack of funding to invest in new technologies and training for the jobs needed for the present and future
•The lack of cooperation and communication among relevant stakeholders

MSMEs key to decent work in tourism

Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) are now the major job creators in tourism. OECD/ ILO research shows that around half of tourism employees work in enterprises of fewer than 10 people, while around three-quarters work in enterprises of fewer than 50 people. The main challenge related to MSMEs, then, is to create an enabling environment that at once improves their economic prospects, overcomes barriers to decent jobs, and ensures that MSMEs’ economic activities are environmentally sustainable.

Promoting jobs for all in tour-ism – youth, women and rural communities

The tourism sector employs more women and young people than most other sectors. Just under half (47%) of people working in tourism in European OECD countries are between 15 and 34 years of age, compared to a third (32%) of workers in the economy as a whole. In OECD countries, women account for 60% of employment in the tourism sector. This is higher than the share of women employed in the services sector (47%) and in the economy as a whole (43%). Women play a leading role in tour-ism entrepreneurship. UNWTO/ UNWomen research shows that the global rate of women entre-preneurs in ‘hotels and restaurants’ (36%) is comparatively higher than in all sectors combined (22%). By providing opportunities for women, youth and rural communities in a variety of roles, tourism contributes to several SDG target areas surrounding empowerment of vulnerable groups and more equal and inclusive societies. More inclusion strengthens tourism’s power to unite people across cultures in a celebration of diversity, increasing overall social resilience. Despite these benefits tourism provides, it must also address serious challenges surrounding employment for all of these groups. One is a large gender pay gap. In tourism, women are on average paid 20-25% less than male workers for comparable skills. Women are often over-represented in non-standard forms of employment. Wom-en also suffer segregation in terms of access to education and training. Temporary and part-time jobs are particularly common among women, young people, and the less-skilled who are employed in tourism. They can often lead to decent work deficits, including inadequate social security coverage, low wages and income inequality, and poor working conditions. The tourism sector’s variable demand cycle, with irregular working hours and unpredictable shifts, poses additional challenges for those (of any gender) trying to reconcile work and family responsibilities. At the same time, however, this flexibility may also provide opportunities to individuals wanting to combine a job in tourism with another occupation.

A policy framework for decent tourism jobs for all

New policies are needed to maximize the potential of the tourism sector to create more and better jobs, while reducing the risk associated with an increasing skills mismatch.

Policies should:
• Encourage the progress of innovation in tourism that fosters job creation and entrepreneurship, particularly among women, youth and rural communities, through;
• Bring together educational institutions, the private sector, governments and technology partners to review educational programmes and help create the skill sets needed for future work opportunities, including soft skills;
• Further bridge the gap between available qualifications and workplace skills needed, by supporting opportunities for appropriate industry experience, such as internships or scholarships, along with specialized education and training;
• Include technology stakeholders in national tourism policy coordination structures and mechanisms, in order to ensure an holistic approach that accounts for innovation and job creation;
• Include tourism as a key sector in both national and multilateral agenda for employment, education and skills creation, and overall economic development, highlighting tourism’s capacity to deliver on the objectives of creating more and better jobs.

 Source:UNWTO